Rendering Text in Metal with Signed-Distance Fields

In this article, we will discuss a method for rendering high-fidelity text with Metal. It’s easy to overlook text rendering when thinking about 3D graphics. However, very few games or applications can get by without displaying any text, so it’s important to consider how we can best use the GPU to incorporate text into our … Read more

Instanced Rendering in Metal

In this article, we will discuss an important technique for efficiently drawing many objects with a single draw call: instanced rendering. This technique helps you get the most out of the GPU while keeping memory and CPU usage to a minimum. The sample app for this post renders several dozen animated cows moving on top … Read more

Textures and Samplers in Metal

Textures are a central topic in rendering. Although they have many uses, one of their primary purposes is to provide a greater level of detail to surfaces than can be achieved with vertex colors alone. In this post, we’ll talk about texture mapping, which helps us bring virtual characters to life. We’ll also introduce samplers, … Read more

Up and Running with Metal, Part 3: Lighting and Rendering in 3D

In this post, we’ll finally start rendering in 3D. In order to get there, we’ll talk about how to load 3D model data from disk, how to tell Metal to draw from a vertex buffer using indices, and how to manipulate objects in real time. This post assumes that you know a little linear algebra. … Read more

Metal Performance Shaders in Swift

What is the Metal Performance Shaders Framework? Announced at WWDC 2015, the Metal Performance Shaders (MPS) framework is a collection of high-performance image filters for iOS 9. Each filter in the library is an efficient black-box implementation of a common image processing task: blur, edge detection, convolution, etc. One useful trait of Apple’s black-box approach … Read more

First Look at MetalKit

MetalKit is a forthcoming framework on iOS 9 and OS X El Capitan that greatly eases certain tasks such as presenting Metal content in a UIView or NSView, texture loading, and working with model data. This post is an overview of the features offered by MetalKit. Many of our articles so far have focused on … Read more

Translucency and Transparency in Metal

Introduction One of the topics we’ve handily avoided so far in our exploration of Metal is rendering of materials that are not opaque. In this post, we’ll explore a couple of related techniques for achieving transparency and translucency: alpha testing and alpha blending. The sample scene for this post is a desert containing many palm … Read more

Mipmapping and the Blit Command Encoder

In this article we will learn about mipmapping, an important technique for rendering textured objects at a distance. We will find out why mipmapping is important, how it complements regular texture filtering, and how to use the blit command encoder to generate mipmaps efficiently on the GPU.

Cubic Environment Mapping in Metal: Reflection and Refraction

In this post, we’ll talk about some of the more advanced features of texturing in Metal. We’ll apply a cube map to a skybox to simulate a detailed environment surrounding the scene. We’ll also introduce a technique called cubic environment mapping to simulate reflection and refraction, to further enhance the realism of our virtual world.

Fundamentals of Image Processing in Metal

In this post, we will start exploring the world of image processing with the Metal shading language. We will create a framework capable of representing chains of image filters, then write a pair of image filters that will allow us to adjust the saturation and blur of an image. The end result will be an … Read more